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Cascade hydropower plants solve the imperfections of conventional hydropower plants. It provides a new way of obtaining electricity from the hydro potential of lowland and other rivers that do not have the possibility to build classic accumulation lakes, due to the lack of relief terrain. It enables free and safe navigation on the river and the removal of a large amount of kinetic energy from the river, similar to the complete blocking of the river.
It is not necessary to build an accumulation lake, or to flood settlements, roads and fertile lands. It is not necessary to displace the population, change the micro and macro climate around the river. The overflow of water over the cascades constantly protects settlements from high waters, and floods.
The cascade hydroelectric power plant uses natural water movements in the riverbed, when river sediment and ice do not disrupt the electricity production process. Among other things, the problem of meandering the river is being permanently solved, and constant navigation on the river is possible. The riverbed is filled with constant water, which is a suitable parameter for the improved development of flora and fauna in and around the river.
The price of produced electricity is not burdened with environmental taxes. This type of hydro potential is not covered by renewable energy plans and its underutilized. Software management controls the operation of the hydropower plant, regardless of fluctuations in flow and water levels in the river. Another advantage of cascade hydroelectric power plants is the low cost of construction, because we don’t need massive dams and large accumulation lakes. It is an industrial production of parts with fast serial construction at given positions, which gives a multiple advantage compared to the construction of classic accumulation dams, and faster turnover of invested capital.
Typical and modular production of parts of the cascade hydroelectric power plant with the installation of generator power from 100 kW up to 5 MW is planned. In larger rivers, the total power of one cascade hydroelectric power plant can be more than 200 MW. Hydropower plants are also built on swamps, when they are drained as needed and irrigated along the river banks.
A sustainable renewable energy system with a constant concentrated flow of water in the lowland river has been provided. The current construction of a cascade hydropower plant will have minimal financial losses compared to future standardized hydropower plants of this type. The static part of the hydroelectric power plant is a well known reinforced concrete structure that has lasted for several centuries, and it’s a good place for the installation of future hydro turbines, which will be perfected in the future.
Generators, transformers with all the necessary equipment are already commercially available and they fit into every design and construction of a cascade hydroelectric power plant. The supporting structures of hydro turbines are standardized according to the use of materials, technological processing, type of river and the size of the hydroelectric power plant, which give the project the possibility for unlimited developments of hydro turbines.
Hydro turbine is a consumable in the production of electricity. With all necessary equipment and software management, it will have unlimited development and replacement during its operation, until the final future standardization. The positions of the turbine blades have been changed and regulated, so that the water can reduce the negative resistance in the rotational movement of the hydro turbine. With technological solutions, we achieved that we have less than 3% of water seepage through a hydro turbine, while 97% of water is used for energy. These used measurement results of water flow in the river do not include torrential water, which periodically affects the enormous growth of water in the river. Additionally, the concept of operation of a cascade hydroelectric power plant was applied, which is used by the hydroelectric power plant from the action of tides. See the appropriate section for explanation.
Refer to the appropriate section for the benefits of building cascading hydropower plants.



Using the unused potential, mostly the lowland rivers’ flow:

The water drop required for efficent operation of a hydroelectric power plant ranges between 2,3 and 4,3 m, for a hydroelectric power plant construction to be profitable all soil types are being used, including the swamp;

Resolving the issue of river meandering:

The river is being regulated to flow along a projected route, as well as the water flow, the speed and the mainstream;

 Resolving the melioration of the bank soil:

The river flow being regulated, together with the existing canal system;

Example, arable land along the riverbed is naturally regulated for irrigation and drainage without use of additional energy, favourable conditions for intensive farming and greenhouses;

Resolving the waterway issue:

The riverbed is systemically filled by water during dry season (stopping the water flow during night);

Water level is constant all year round and is maintained automatically, everything’s regulated by the sensors monitoring the water level through software managing from the regional centre of water control and usage;

Navigability is enabled 365 days per year, two-way with built parallel lock gates on future cascade hydroelectrical power plants;

Managing boats is automatic, with mutual communication, navigation is regulated along the mapped route, set by the river mainstream (rivers are navigable throughout the year);

Reduced fuel consumption in transport, as water flow is reduced several times, volume of river section is widened with reduced water speed, which positively affects boat navigability;

Resolving the flood issue by 100 %:

Water overflow from cascade to cascade, enabling the waterbed water to flow towards the estuary naturally and at high speed;

Example, torrent water at the ofverflow reaching the speed of over 5 m/s in free drop;

As the water is not compressible, it tends to level with the downstream flow, thus transferring its energy with high speed onto the next cascade hydroelectric power plant, where water overflow is repeated towards the next cascade;

Premeasured parametre in earthquake caused tsunami activities, water transfers its intensity of  thrust towards a bank (cascade hydroelectric power plant) at the speed of over 200 m/s;

Resolving the issue of hatchery, ecologically refines the river flow:

The fish hatching naturally, without a danger of a river armlet drying out;

A container can be made with automatic lock gates for fsh, classic lock gate for fish, or the appearance of overflowing lakes built from stone;

A river is being cleaned from floating waste and plastic by the waterflow:

The position of a hydroelectric power plant is ellipticall in shape set in relation to the river banks, the floating waste is concentrating in one spot by the river bank due to the water flow;

A Downstream set vessel or barge with occasional water or waste release, the waste remains on hte vessel while the water’s flowing due to the difference in water level, and is then transported for incineration or processing;

Urban solution to development of the river bank:

Regulating the bank for systemic development of city, industrial zones, port, nature park, tourist potential;

For sports recreation, water ski, flow basins, kayak tracks;

Resolved river ice breaking:

The ice is systemically retained in sections or released on overflows according to need;

A new type of plow enables to break ice with no major force, according to need, the new plow type may be attached to the prow of existing transport boats;

Resolving the issue of installing a bank fortification, an embankment partially built above the riverbed:

The water strained on the upstream hydroelectrical power plant is being transferred by side canals to the downstream river flow, where it is then used in a series of other hydroelectric power plants, without soaking the bank soil with water;

Roads and the infrastructure, real estate by the river are protected against flooding;

Using the state land:

Land expropriation is simple, the state being the owner of river banks, 50 m from the river course;

Getting the building permit is quicker, as the agreement is in the interest of the owner, the state;

Collecting on the investment is quick, when systemically regulating the riverbed and building on the set river section;

Production of electric energy out of renewable sources:

Similar to effect of operation of existing classic hydroelectric power plants;

So far unused potential of the river is being used, its gepgrašhic position giving it a low bank to set classic hydroelectric power plant with accumulation;

Systemic and quick build, easy maintenance of cascade hydroelectric power plants:

The build is direct on small rivers, with machines inside the riverbed;

On large rivers, building is mostly done by dredges  with necessary equipment;

Building of a large hydroelectric power plant takes up to a year, as they’re built by standardized concrete formwork;

Machine room, as well as parts of the hydroturbine, concrete elements are installed schematically;

Machine room may be located below the water level, it is esthetically not visible from river banks whether it is filled with compressed air;

Hydroturbines are made in parts:

Serial production of spare parts, installed into a dry concrete riverbed (temporarily closing the concrete riverbed upstream and downtream, and then the water is pumped out);

The time of assembly, overhaul, replacing of a hydroturbine is several days;

A reinforced concrete frame is assembled in a river, and is permanent in character:

A hydroelectric power plant is secured by refuting piles;

Next the elements of strip foundation are attached to the piles (it is filled up by stones upstream and downstream) that are levelled against the water surface;

The frame is architecturally and constructively changeable, for the needs of a certain type of river and hydroelectric power plant;

The concrete is laid in elements, and partly by pouring into molds at the spot;

The flow of the deposits is free:

The deposit passes through a hydroturbine, while floating waste is being collected;

The ice is transferred through the overflow, which is mobile at the height of 2 to 3 metres;

Networked hydroelectric power plants are managed by a central software:

A dedicated software shall be developed to manage all the required parametres, for the required production of electric energy, the waterway, flood protection, soil melioration, etc;

Production of electric energy is mostly located in teh required daily regime:

At night the water in riverbed is stopped, collected for use in daily regime, optimum water consumption;

In high waters, a hydroelectrical power plant operates 24 h per day;

In dry months the water is used in peaks of electric energy consumption;

97% of flowing water is used, excluding torrent water flowing periodically over the overflow:

3% of water is strained beside the turbine blades, then flowing over the hydroturbine pipes;

Optimization of water management through an application on a mobile telephone:

As hydroelectric power plants are numerous, work regime is the automatization of work process without the surplus labourforce, when staff on duty monitor the process through an application on a mobile device;

Everything is networked with the regional centre monitoring the quantity of rainfall in the region, further with special needs for electric energy production in certain parts of a river basin;

Malfunction registration with decrease in regular production, with the same water flow:

Apart from sensors registering the malfunction, once the material is self-consumed, an example of bearings on the turbine blades, reduced production is an alarm for required  regular overhaul of the facility;

Overhaul is performed in dry concrete riverbed:

Overhaul is done using a crane, auxiliary crane in concrete riverbed, when worn spare parts and equipment are individually replaced in dry concrete riverbed;

Interconnected machine rooms with a pathway, suspension or static bridge:

Machine room is connected to the river bank in numerous ways, required for communication of the staff and the hydroelectric power plant overhaul;

Machine room may be located below the water level, filled with air, type of reverse water bell;

Lifespan is unlimited, as long as there is flowing water in a river:

Similar to design of a classic hydroelectric powerplant, and better, as the flowing hydroelectric powerplant does not retain deposits;

Water slowdown is achieved in 3 to 20 h, depending on the water column hight, width of the riverbed and its current flow;

Resolved noise issue, the hydroturbine operation is noiseless:

Blade drop on the built prototype is physically inaudible, as the blade run is isolated by low strain of rubber strap, by other solutions;

The blade does not suffer negative pressure, neither does the transmission chain;